Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global

Common Names

Presently, 70,425 common names for 22,957 taxa, including 36,814 common names of non-English origin, have been entered into GRIN-Global. To avoid the necessity of treating the multiple variations of a common name that can arise from differences in spelling, word union, or hyphenation (e.g., sugar beet, sugar-beet, or sugarbeet), we have attempted to standardize treatment of common names in GRIN-Global by adopting the conventions of Kartesz and Thieret (1991) on matters of union or hyphenation of group names and modifiers. Further decisions on joining or separating the elements of common names follow usage in Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Gove et al., 1961). These rules dictate that group names are correctly applied only to certain genera (such as rose for Rosa or vetch for Vicia) or families (e.g., grass for Poaceae). Some 619 "true group" names are provided in GRIN-Global for genera. Usage of these true group names for plants in other genera or families requires hyphenation or adjoining to preceding modifiers (such as moss-rose for Portulaca grandiflora or milk-vetch for Astragalus). General terms, such as tree, weed, or wort, that cannot be linked to any particular plant group always require adjoining or hyphenation. A few exceptions to allow usage of some true group names for more than one genus exist, such as pitcherplant for Nepenthes and Sarracenia, especially when genera have been recently dismembered, such as wheatgrass for Agropyron, Elymus, and Elytrigia.

Common names have been extracted from a variety of sources, such as floras, agronomic or horticultural works, or economic botany literature. Although some names appear in several sources, at least one source is presented in GRIN-Global for each common name. Sources are frequently indicated using GRIN-Global literature abbreviations, expansions of which can usually be found by consulting the references cited for that taxon. No effort has been made to include every locally used common name appearing in the literature; instead the focus has been to record those in wider usage. Some common names clearly in restricted use, such as those accompanying rare and endangered taxa, have been entered for reference purposes.

CIMMYT Germplasm Policy (excerpts)

CIMMYT holds and manages its germplasm as an international public good and is committed to its widespread and facilitated diffusion and use to achieve the maximum possible access, scale, scope of impact, and sharing of benefits for the poor, especially maize and wheat farmers and consumers in developing countries. To safeguard its international public goods character, and by legal obligation with FAO and the Governing Body of the International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), CIMMYT germplasm for use in food and agriculture is transferred using the Standard Materials Transfer Agreement (SMTA) of the ITPGRFA or equivalent Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) in the case of species that are not listed in the Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA.

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

The CIMMYT germplasm research for development focus is on (i) conservation and the effective use of genetic diversity and (ii) the further development and deployment of CIMMYT germplasm for the benefit of improved and more sustainable food and nutrition security, poverty reduction, and environmental sustainability.

CIMMYT strives to make CIMMYT held germplasm, as well as the data and other outputs resulting from its germplasm research and development activities, openly available and accessible for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture, in accordance with the ITPGRFA, the CGIAR Intellectual Assets Principles, the CGIAR Open Access and Data Management Policy and CIMMYT's Intellectual Assets Policy. Germplasm availability is made public through the web, field days etc. and access is free of charge or at minimal cost. CIMMYT may apply additional conditions to the transfer of germplasm under development from its breeding and research programs in support of accelerated use, data sharing, and impact assessment.

CIMMYT acquires and distributes all seed samples in accordance with relevant international and national regulations, such as phytosanitary/quarantine laws, ITPGRFA or CBD, and national laws for genetic resources access, transgenic status, and other considerations. Germplasm imported, exported, or acquired from quarantined regions within the same country must pass through the applicable quarantine processes implemented by an accredited CIMMYT Seed Health Unit or the importing or exporting countries' dedicated authorities, as well as meeting all necessary regulatory requirements, before acceptance and use by CIMMYT for conservation, breeding, research, and/or dissemination to third parties.

CIMMYT makes no warranties, express or implied, regarding the quality, viability or purity (genetic or mechanical), safety of and/or use of CIMMYT-held germplasm including any warranty of merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose, including without limitation, production, breeding, crossing, testing, commercialization, or non-infringement of third-party intellectual property.