Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global

Content of GRIN-Global Taxonomy

Several types of data records are contained in GRIN-Global Taxonomy. These include accepted or synonymic scientific names, common names, geographical distributions, literature references, and economic importance. Each of these is discussed below, and the number of records currently in GRIN-Global relating to each type is indicated.

Scientific Names

Accepted name records are searchable at the level of family and genus or species and infraspecies. The generic records include a listing of of names for 14,575 accepted vascular plant genera in the world and an additional 12,981 synonym generic names. For each genus, the author is cited in accordance with Articles 46–50 of the ICN (McNeill et al., 2012), and conserved or rejected names are indicated. The family to which each genus is assigned is provided, and any alternative family classifications in current use are indicated. For genera whose acceptance is doubtful or disputed, an alternatively accepted genus may be indicated. Many genera are provided with literature references in GRIN-Global documenting their acceptance or family placement, a recent taxonomic revision or monograph, or recent molecular-based phylogenetic study of the genus. Nomenclatural comments are provided for problematic genera. An increasing number of genera [116] (and families [97]) now have infrageneric (or infrafamilial) classification data present in GRIN, with the subordinate species (or genera) linked to the appropriate infrageneric (or infrafamilial) category. The generic and family data in GRIN were originally derived from USDA Technical Bulletin 1796 (Gunn et al., 1992), Families and genera of spermatophytes recognized by the Agricultural Research Service. Generic and family concepts in that publication were formulated with the aid of over 200 taxonomic specialists. Since that publication appeared, family and generic data continue to be regularly updated from current literature, and have been expanded to include pteridophytes. Currently, family names follow the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV system.

Species and subspecific records now total 66,664 accepted and 53,667 synonym names in GRIN-Global. Binomials (94,724), trinomials (25,580), and quadrinomials (310) are included among these. All such names are assigned a unique identifying number in GRIN-Global, the nomen number or "taxno." Names can be queried using these numbers in GRIN-Global Taxonomy's simple query option. The inclusion of infraspecific names for a given species is selective and not necessarily exhaustive. Each name at whatever rank is accompanied by author and place of original publication. Comments relating to nomenclatural matters, parentage for hybrid taxa, or alternative Group names under the cultivated code (Brickell et al., 2016) are provided for many names. Author abbreviations conform to the international standard reference Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt and Powell, 1992) and its updated on-line version. Nonserial botanical works (pre-1950) have been abbreviated according to the standard reference Taxonomic Literature (Stafleu and Cowan, 1976-1988) and its supplements (Stafleu and Mennega, 1992-2000; Dorr and Nicolson, 2008-2009), and publication dates have been verified using that work. Serial publications are abbreviated according to Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum, its Supplementum (Lawrence et al., 1968; Bridson and Smith, 1991), and BPH-2 (Bridson et al., 2004).

Each nomenclature record, as well as most other record types, contains the date of the most recent modification. Since a change could be strictly editorial, a special field also indicates if the name itself has been verified recently. Usage of GRIN-Global taxonomic information should be confined to records which have been verified. Currently all generic names and about 96% of species and infraspecific names meet this criterion. Since revisions of GRIN-Global Taxonomy formerly proceeded on a family-by-family basis, certain families are more thoroughly treated than others, particularly those with important crop genera. An example is the Fabaceae, for which the GRIN-Global data were extensively reviewed and published as USDA Technical Bulletin 1757, Legume (Fabaceae) nomenclature in the USDA germplasm system (Wiersema et al., 1990).

CIMMYT Germplasm Policy (excerpts)

CIMMYT holds and manages its germplasm as an international public good and is committed to its widespread and facilitated diffusion and use to achieve the maximum possible access, scale, scope of impact, and sharing of benefits for the poor, especially maize and wheat farmers and consumers in developing countries. To safeguard its international public goods character, and by legal obligation with FAO and the Governing Body of the International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), CIMMYT germplasm for use in food and agriculture is transferred using the Standard Materials Transfer Agreement (SMTA) of the ITPGRFA or equivalent Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) in the case of species that are not listed in the Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA.

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

The CIMMYT germplasm research for development focus is on (i) conservation and the effective use of genetic diversity and (ii) the further development and deployment of CIMMYT germplasm for the benefit of improved and more sustainable food and nutrition security, poverty reduction, and environmental sustainability.

CIMMYT strives to make CIMMYT held germplasm, as well as the data and other outputs resulting from its germplasm research and development activities, openly available and accessible for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture, in accordance with the ITPGRFA, the CGIAR Intellectual Assets Principles, the CGIAR Open Access and Data Management Policy and CIMMYT's Intellectual Assets Policy. Germplasm availability is made public through the web, field days etc. and access is free of charge or at minimal cost. CIMMYT may apply additional conditions to the transfer of germplasm under development from its breeding and research programs in support of accelerated use, data sharing, and impact assessment.

CIMMYT acquires and distributes all seed samples in accordance with relevant international and national regulations, such as phytosanitary/quarantine laws, ITPGRFA or CBD, and national laws for genetic resources access, transgenic status, and other considerations. Germplasm imported, exported, or acquired from quarantined regions within the same country must pass through the applicable quarantine processes implemented by an accredited CIMMYT Seed Health Unit or the importing or exporting countries' dedicated authorities, as well as meeting all necessary regulatory requirements, before acceptance and use by CIMMYT for conservation, breeding, research, and/or dissemination to third parties.

CIMMYT makes no warranties, express or implied, regarding the quality, viability or purity (genetic or mechanical), safety of and/or use of CIMMYT-held germplasm including any warranty of merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose, including without limitation, production, breeding, crossing, testing, commercialization, or non-infringement of third-party intellectual property.